Coronavirus disorder 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are now available to youngsters ages five and up in the U.S. This is what dad and mom and youngsters will need to know about the basic safety and effectiveness of the vaccine, the possible side effects, and the benefits of having vaccinated.

If youngsters never usually encounter severe sickness with COVID-19, why do they will need a COVID-19 vaccine?

A COVID-19 vaccine can protect against your youngster from having and spreading the virus that causes COVID-19.

If your youngster will get COVID-19, a COVID-19 vaccine could protect against him or her from getting seriously ill or enduring limited-expression or long-expression issues. Kids with other wellness situations, this kind of as weight problems, diabetic issues and asthma, may be at greater risk of really serious sickness with COVID-19.

Acquiring a COVID-19 vaccine can also enable maintain your youngster in school and far more safely have playdates and take part in sports activities and other team actions.

What COVID-19 vaccines, additional major pictures and boosters have been authorised for youngsters in the U.S.?

In the U.S., COVID-19 vaccines are available to youngsters by age team:

  • Ages five by way of 11. The U.S. Food items and Drug Administration (Food and drug administration) has given unexpected emergency use authorization to a Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for this age team. This vaccine includes two injections, given 3 months aside. It is made up of a decrease dose than the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine made use of for individuals age 12 and more mature. Exploration exhibits that this vaccine is about 91% efficient in stopping COVID-19 in youngsters ages five by way of 11.
  • Ages 12 by way of fifteen. The Food and drug administration has given unexpected emergency use authorization to a Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for this age team. This vaccine includes two injections, given 3 months aside. It is made up of the exact same dose as the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for individuals ages 16 and more mature. The 2nd dose can be given up to 6 months just after the initially dose, if wanted. Exploration has revealed that this vaccine is a hundred% efficient in stopping COVID-19 in youngsters ages 12 by way of fifteen.
  • Ages 16 and more mature. The Food and drug administration has authorised a Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, now termed Comirnaty, for this age team. This vaccine includes two injections, given 3 months aside. The 2nd dose can be given up to 6 months just after the initially dose, if wanted. This vaccine is 91% efficient in stopping severe sickness with COVID-19 in individuals age 16 and more mature. Early investigate also indicates that the vaccine is ninety six% efficient at stopping severe disorder with COVID-19 brought about by the delta variant, the most widespread COVID-19 variant in the U.S correct now.

An additional major shot of a COVID-19 vaccine can enable individuals who are vaccinated and may not have experienced a strong ample immune response. The CDC now endorses that youngsters ages five by way of 11 who have moderately or seriously weakened immune devices really should get an additional dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. This shot really should be given 28 days just after the 2nd shot.

Booster doses can enable individuals who are vaccinated and whose immune response weakened above time. Exploration indicates that having a booster dose can reduce the risk of an infection and severe sickness with COVID-19. Little ones ages 12 by way of seventeen really should get a Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine booster shot if they have been given both doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine and it’s been at minimum five months.

How did the Food and drug administration establish the basic safety and effectiveness of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines for use in youngsters?

For youngsters ages five by way of 11, the Food and drug administration reviewed a vaccine analyze of far more than four,600 youngsters in this age variety. Of this team, about 3,a hundred were given the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. The other youngsters were given an inactive (placebo) shot. Kids who were given the vaccine were monitored for side effects for at minimum 2 months just after the 2nd dose. Facet effects were usually gentle to moderate.

The Food and drug administration also took an early search at instances of COVID-19 that happened just one 7 days just after youngsters were given a 2nd dose of the vaccine. None of the youngsters in this assessment experienced been formerly identified with COVID-19. Among the 1,305 youngsters given the vaccine, there were 3 instances of COVID-19. Among the 663 youngsters given the placebo, there were 16 instances of COVID-19. The final results suggest that the vaccine is about 91% efficient in stopping COVID-19 in this age team.

For youngsters ages 12 by way of fifteen, the Food and drug administration reviewed a vaccine analyze of far more than 2,200 U.S. youngsters in this age variety. Of this team, about 50 percent were given the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. The other youngsters were given a placebo shot.

A 7 days just after the 2nd dose was given, there were no instances of COVID-19 in the 1,005 youngsters given the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. Among the 978 youngsters given the placebo, there were 16 instances of COVID-19. None of the youngsters experienced formerly been identified with COVID-19. The final results suggest that the vaccine is a hundred% efficient at stopping COVID-19 in this age team.

What are the side effects of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines for youngsters?

Kids given the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines experienced side effects very similar to these knowledgeable by individuals age 16 and more mature. The most usually reported side effects involve:

  • Soreness in which the shot was given
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Chills
  • Muscle mass soreness
  • Fever
  • Joint soreness
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Nausea
  • Diminished urge for food

Related to adults, youngsters have side effects within just 2 days just after vaccination that commonly final 1 to 3 days. A lot more youngsters reported these side effects, apart from for injection internet site soreness, just after the 2nd dose of the vaccine. Nevertheless, some individuals have no side effects.

Just after your youngster is given a COVID-19 vaccine, he or she will be monitored for fifteen to thirty minutes to see if he or she has an allergic response that calls for treatment method.

It isn’t really advisable that you give your youngster an above-the-counter soreness reliever right before vaccination to protect against side effects. It really is Alright to give this type of medicine just after your youngster will get a COVID-19 vaccine.

Can COVID-19 vaccines affect the coronary heart?

In the U.S., there has been an maximize in reported instances of myocarditis and pericarditis just after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination, specially in males ages 12 by way of seventeen. Myocarditis is the irritation of the coronary heart muscle, although pericarditis is the irritation of the lining outdoors the coronary heart. These studies are exceptional. One particular analyze indicates that the risk of myocarditis in the 7 days just after becoming entirely vaccinated with the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is about 54 instances per million doses given to males ages 12 to seventeen.

Of the instances reported, the trouble occurred far more normally just after the 2nd dose of the COVID-19 vaccine and commonly within just many days just after COVID-19 vaccination. Most of the individuals who gained treatment quickly felt superior just after acquiring medicine and resting. Signs or symptoms to watch for involve:

  • Upper body soreness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Thoughts of getting a quickly-beating, fluttering or pounding coronary heart

If your youngster has any of these signs within just a 7 days of having a COVID-19 vaccine, look for professional medical treatment.

Is there any investigate on the long-expression effects of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines?

Because COVID-19 vaccine scientific trials only began in the summertime of 2020, it really is not nonetheless clear if the vaccines will have long-expression effects. Nevertheless, vaccines almost never trigger long-expression effects.

A part of the youngsters in each age team were monitored for basic safety for at minimum two months just after becoming given the 2nd dose of the COVID-19 vaccine.

As section of its initially ask for for unexpected emergency use authorization of its COVID-19 vaccine in 2020, Pfizer Inc. produced a basic safety monitoring prepare. The prepare now contains the monitoring of youngsters and adolescents given the COVID-19 vaccine.

In addition, in the U.S. all vaccination providers are expected to report really serious adverse occasions, this kind of as allergic reactions, to a countrywide application termed the Vaccine Adverse Function Reporting Process.

How do the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines work?

The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines use messenger RNA (mRNA). Scientists have been finding out mRNA vaccines for many years.

Coronaviruses have a spikelike composition on their area termed an S protein. COVID-19 mRNA vaccines give instructions to immune cells for how to make a harmless piece of an S protein. Just after vaccination, cells start generating the protein pieces and displaying them on mobile surfaces. The immune technique recognizes the protein and begins developing an immune response and generating antibodies. Just after delivering instructions, the mRNA is right away damaged down. It never ever enters the nucleus of the mobile, in which DNA is saved.

Is there any big difference in the ingredients or dosing of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines for younger youngsters, more mature youngsters or adults?

The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for youngsters ages five by way of 11 is made up of a decrease dose (ten micrograms) than the vaccine made use of for more mature youngsters and adults (thirty micrograms). Lesser needles are becoming made use of to provide the vaccine to youngsters ages five by way of 11.

The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for youngsters ages five by way of 11 also is made up of a various buffer than the vaccine made use of for more mature youngsters and adults. This various buffer, which is made use of in other
Food and drug administration-authorised vaccines, will enable maintain the vaccine stable in refrigerated temperatures for longer.

The ingredients and dosing of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine are the exact same for youngsters ages 12 by way of fifteen and individuals age 16 and more mature.

Are there any youngsters who should not get the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine?

This vaccine is not nonetheless available to youngsters younger than age five. Scientific trials involving younger youngsters are in progress.

The vaccine also shouldn’t be given to a youngster with a known history of a severe allergic response to any of its ingredients. If this is the case, your youngster may be capable to get another COVID-19 vaccine in the long run.

Can a COVID-19 vaccine give a youngster COVID-19?

No. The COVID-19 vaccines at present becoming created in the U.S. never use the dwell virus that causes COVID-19.

Can a COVID-19 vaccine affect fertility or menstruation?

There is no evidence that any COVID-19 vaccines trigger fertility challenges.

A modest number of gals have reported enduring short-term menstrual improvements just after having a COVID-19 vaccine. A modest analyze has also revealed that some gals knowledgeable short-term menstrual improvements just after having COVID-19. It’s not clear if having COVID-19 or a COVID-19 vaccine causes these improvements. Even more investigate is wanted.

Preserve in head that a lot of things can affect menstrual cycles, including infections, stress, slumber challenges and improvements in diet program or physical exercise.

Can youngsters who get COVID-19 encounter long-expression effects?

Everyone who has experienced COVID-19 can build a submit-COVID-19 problem. Exploration indicates that youngsters with both gentle and severe COVID-19 have knowledgeable long-expression signs. The most widespread signs in youngsters involve:

  • Tiredness or tiredness
  • Headache
  • Hassle sleeping
  • Hassle concentrating
  • Muscle mass and joint soreness
  • Cough

These signs could affect your child’s capability to show up at school or do his or her common actions. If your youngster is enduring long-expression signs, look at chatting to your child’s academics about his or her requires.

How can youngsters get a COVID-19 vaccine?

Seek advice from your local wellness section, pharmacy or your child’s health practitioner for info on in which your youngster can get a COVID-19 vaccine. When generating an appointment for your youngster to get a COVID-19 vaccine, look at asking these issues:

  • Does a father or mother or guardian will need to be present at the appointment?
  • What info will will need to be provided in the course of the appointment?
  • Is there a restrict on how a lot of household members, this kind of as siblings, can show up at the appointment?

How quickly can a youngster get a COVID-19 vaccine right before or just after having another vaccine?

A COVID-19 vaccine and other vaccines can be given on the exact same day.

Previously, owing to the newness of COVID-19 vaccines, the CDC experienced advisable towards having any other vaccines two months right before and just after having a COVID-19 vaccine. The CDC altered its advice based on basic safety knowledge gathered in the latest months.

Don’t forget, COVID-19 vaccination will secure most individuals from having ill with COVID-19. If you have issues or considerations about your youngster having a COVID-19 vaccine, speak to your child’s health practitioner. He or she may be capable to enable you weigh the dangers and benefits.